Vitamins

Topics with scientific, medical or general health related information and discussion that is not specifically related to Lyme disease.
User avatar
Yvonne
Posts: 2421
Joined: Fri 27 Jul 2007 16:02

Re: Vitamins

Post by Yvonne » Sat 29 Mar 2008 15:51

Too Little Vitamin D May Soften Baby's Skull

WEDNESDAY, March 26 (HealthDay News) — Vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy may be linked to a softening of bones in a baby's skull, Japanese researchers report

They also found that breast-feeding without vitamin D supplementation could prolong the deficiency, which might lead to a risk of serious health problems later in life, including decreased bone density and type 1 diabetes.

Craniotabes, the softening of skull bones, in otherwise normal newborns has largely been regarded as a physiological condition without the need for treatment. Our findings, however, show that this untreated condition may be the result of a potentially dangerous vitamin D deficiency," Dr. Tohru Yorifuji, of Kyoto University Hospital, said in a prepared statement

The researchers evaluated 1,120 newborns and found that, at five to seven days of age, 246 (22 percent) of the babies had craniotabes. The researchers also found strong seasonal variations in the incidence of craniotabes. This suggests that the condition is associated with prenatal vitamin D deficiency, and is likely influenced by the amount of sunlight exposure a woman gets during pregnancy. The body produces vitamin D when the skin is exposed to sunlight.

This vitamin D deficiency in newborns may persist into later life, especially in breast-fed infants who don't receive a formula with vitamin D supplementation, the researchers said. More than half the breast-fed infants with craniotabes showed statistically significant low levels of serum 25-OH vitamin D, the storage form of the vitamin. Some of these infants had symptoms of an overactive parathyroid gland, which is also consistent with vitamin D deficiency.

The study appears in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism

Until more research is done on the effects of perinatal vitamin D deficiency, we suggest treating breast-fed infants with craniotabes with vitamin D, or preferably, treating all pregnant women with vitamin D," Yorifuji said.

Several recent studies have reported a resurgence of vitamin D deficiency, even in developed countries, according to background information in a news release about the study. Skeletal problems, such as rickets in childhood or softening of bones in adults, are common consequences of vitamin D deficiency, which can also increase the risk of multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes and colorectal cancer in adults.

http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/ ... ekey=88187
Listen to all,
plucking a feather from every passing goose,
but follow no one absolutely

User avatar
Yvonne
Posts: 2421
Joined: Fri 27 Jul 2007 16:02

Re: Vitamins

Post by Yvonne » Sun 20 Apr 2008 12:41

Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Apr;87(4):1102S-5S. Links

Vitamin D assessment in population-based studies: a review of the issues.

Millen AE, Bodnar LM.
University at Buffalo, School of Public Health and Health Professions, Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, Buffalo, NY 14214-8001, USA. aemillen@buffalo.edu

In the past decade, research on the relation between vitamin D exposure and disease in population-based studies has increased exponentially. These studies have involved measurement of vitamin D exposure by means of several methods: blood assays, self-reported dietary and supplemental intakes, and sunlight exposure questionnaires or diaries. As with all exposure measurements, researchers must consider the validity of their assessment tools for capturing vitamin D exposure. The purpose of this article is to summarize our current understanding of the various approaches to measuring vitamin D status within populations as reviewed at the 2007 Experimental Biology symposium, "Assessment of Vitamin D in Population-Based Studies." In summary, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D is the accepted biomarker for short-term vitamin D status, but estimates of long-term dietary and supplemental intakes of vitamin D and long-term sunlight exposure may be the most logistically feasible indicators of lifetime vitamin D exposure in population-based studies. Also discussed are issues investigators should consider when analyzing relations between vitamin D exposure and disease outcomes in population-based studies as well as research avenues that need further exploration .
The best method for assessing vitamin D status in population-based studies will depend primarily on the research question asked and the critical window of vitamin D exposure hypothesized to be most important.

PMID: 18400742
Listen to all,
plucking a feather from every passing goose,
but follow no one absolutely

User avatar
Yvonne
Posts: 2421
Joined: Fri 27 Jul 2007 16:02

Re: Vitamins

Post by Yvonne » Sun 20 Apr 2008 12:42

Vitamin D guards against artery disease

Vitamin D may protect against an artery disease in which fatty deposits restrict blood flow to the limbs. People with low levels of vitamin D in their blood experience an increased risk for a condition known as peripheral artery disease, or PAD.

PAD most often reduces blood flow to the legs, causing pain and numbness, impairing the ability to walk and in some cases leading to amputation. It develops when fatty deposits accumulate in the inner linings of artery walls, cutting blood flow and oxygen to the legs, feet, arms and elsewhere.

American researchers did a survey involving 4,839 adults who had their blood vitamin D levels measured and underwent a screening method for PAD that assesses blood flow to the legs.

It was found that the people in the lowest 25 percent of vitamin D levels were 80 percent more likely to have PAD than those in the highest 25 percent. Participants in the survey who had the lowest vitamin D levels had a much higher prevalence of peripheral artery disease. But the researchers also said that it would be premature for people to start taking vitamin D supplements because more studies are needed to confirm that it is protective.

It was noted that other vitamins that had been thought to possibly help prevent cardiovascular disease such as vitamin E did not pan out after further research. Vitamin D helps the body absorb calcium and is considered important for bone health. In adults, vitamin D deficiency can lead to osteoporosis, and it can lead to rickets in children. Some studies have indicated it might provide other benefits. For example, one found that people with low vitamin D levels had an elevated risk for heart attack, heart failure and stroke, suggesting the vitamin may protect against cardiovascular disease.

The body makes vitamin D when skin is exposed to sunlight. It is found in fatty fish such as salmon. Milk commonly is fortified with it. People with PAD have a four to five times greater risk of heart attack or stroke

http://www.doctorndtv.com/news/news.asp?id=3145
Listen to all,
plucking a feather from every passing goose,
but follow no one absolutely

User avatar
Yvonne
Posts: 2421
Joined: Fri 27 Jul 2007 16:02

Re: Vitamins

Post by Yvonne » Sun 18 May 2008 9:43

Vitamin D: its role and uses in immunology

ABSTRACT
In recent years there has been an effort to understand possible noncalcemic roles of vitamin D, including its role in the immune system and, in particular, on T cell-medicated immunity. Vitamin D receptor is found in significant concentrations in the T lymphocyte and macrophage populations. However, its highest concentration is in the immature immune cells of the thymus and the mature CD-8 T lymphocytes. The significant role of vitamin D compounds as selective immunosuppressants is illustrated by their ability to either prevent or markedly suppress animal models of autoimmune disease. Results show that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 can either prevent or markedly suppress experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, type I diabetes, and inflammatory bowel disease. In almost every case, the action of the vitamin D hormone requires that the animals be maintained on a normal or high calcium diet. Possible mechanisms of suppression of these autoimmune disorders by the vitamin D hormone have been presented. The vitamin D hormone stimulates transforming growth factor TGFß-1 and interleukin 4 (IL-4) production, which in turn may suppress inflammatory T cell activity. In support of this, the vitamin D hormone is unable to suppress a murine model of the human disease multiple sclerosis in IL-4-deficient mice. The results suggest an important role for vitamin D in autoimmune disorders and provide a fertile and interesting area of research that may yield important new therapies.—DeLuca, H. F., Cantorna, M. T. Vitamin D: its role and uses in immunology

http://www.fasebj.org/cgi/content/full/15/14/2579
Listen to all,
plucking a feather from every passing goose,
but follow no one absolutely

User avatar
Yvonne
Posts: 2421
Joined: Fri 27 Jul 2007 16:02

Re: Vitamins

Post by Yvonne » Sun 18 May 2008 9:45

Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences1

ABSTRACT

Vitamin D deficiency is now recognized as a pandemic. The major cause of vitamin D deficiency is the lack of appreciation that sun exposure in moderation is the major source of vitamin D for most humans. Very few foods naturally contain vitamin D, and foods that are fortified with vitamin D are often inadequate to satisfy either a child's or an adult's vitamin D requirement. Vitamin D deficiency causes rickets in children and will precipitate and exacerbate osteopenia, osteoporosis, and fractures in adults. Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of common cancers, autoimmune diseases, hypertension, and infectious diseases. A circulating level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of >75 nmol/L, or 30 ng/mL, is required to maximize vitamin D's beneficial effects for health. In the absence of adequate sun exposure, at least 800–1000 IU vitamin D3/d may be needed to achieve this in children and adults. Vitamin D2 may be equally effective for maintaining circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D when given in physiologic concentrations

http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/content/abstract/87/4/1080S
Listen to all,
plucking a feather from every passing goose,
but follow no one absolutely

User avatar
Yvonne
Posts: 2421
Joined: Fri 27 Jul 2007 16:02

Re: Vitamins

Post by Yvonne » Sun 18 May 2008 9:55

The Miracle of Vitamin D

Sunlight and vitamin D are critical to all life forms. Standard textbooks state that the principal function of vitamin D is to promote calcium absorption in the gut and calcium transfer across cell membranes, thus contributing to strong bones and a calm, contented nervous system. It is also well recognized that vitamin D aids in the absorption of magnesium, iron and zinc, as well as calcium.

Actually, vitamin D does not in itself promote healthy bone. Vitamin D controls the levels of calcium in the blood. If there is not enough calcium in the diet, then it will be drawn from the bone. High levels of vitamin D (from the diet or from sunlight) will actually demineralize bone if sufficient calcium is not present.

Vitamin D will also enhance the uptake of toxic metals like lead, cadmium, aluminum and strontium if calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are not present in adequate amounts.18 Vitamin D supplementation should never be suggested unless calcium intake is sufficient or supplemented at the same time.

Receptors for vitamin D are found in most of the cells in the body and research during the 1980s suggested that vitamin D contributed to a healthy immune system, promoted muscle strength, regulated the maturation process and contributed to hormone production.

During the last ten years, researchers have made a number of exciting discoveries about vitamin D. They have ascertained, for example, that vitamin D is an antioxidant that is a more effective antioxidant than vitamin E in reducing lipid peroxidation and increasing enzymes that protect against oxidation.19;20

Vitamin D deficiency decreases biosynthesis and release of insulin.21 Glucose intolerance has been inversely associated with the concentration of vitamin D in the blood. Thus, vitamin D may protect against both Type I and Type II diabetes.22

The risk of senile cataract is reduced in persons with optimal levels of D and carotenoids.23

PCOS (Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome) has been corrected by supplementation of D and calcium.24

Vitamin D plays a role in regulation of both the "infectious" immune system and the "inflammatory" immune system.25

Low vitamin D is associated with several autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis, Sjogren's Syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, thyroiditis and Crohn's disease.26;27

Osteoporosis is strongly associated with low vitamin D. Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis respond favorably (and rapidly) to higher levels of D plus calcium and magnesium.28

D deficiency has been mistaken for fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue or peripheral neuropathy.1;28-30

Infertility is associated with low vitamin D.31 Vitamin D supports production of estrogen in men and women.32 PMS has been completely reversed by addition of calcium, magnesium and vitamin D.33 Menstrual migraine is associated with low levels of vitamin D and calcium

Breast, prostate, skin and colon cancer have a strong association with low levels of D and lack of sunlight.34-38

Activated vitamin D in the adrenal gland regulates tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate limiting enzyme necessary for the production of dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine. Low D may contribute to chronic fatigue and depression.39

Seasonal Affective Disorder has been treated successfully with vitamin D. In a recent study covering 30 days of treatment comparing vitamin D supplementation with two-hour daily use of light boxes, depression completely resolved in the D group but not in the light box group.40

High stress may increase the need for vitamin D or UV-B sunlight and calcium.41

People with Parkinsons and Alzheimers have been found to have lower levels of vitamin D.42;43

Low levels of D, and perhaps calcium, in a pregnant mother and later in the child may be the contributing cause of "crooked teeth" and myopia. When these conditions are found in succeeding generations it means the genetics require higher levels of one or both nutrients to optimize health.44-47

Behavior and learning disorders respond well to D and/or calcium combined with an adequate diet and trace minerals

http://www.westonaprice.org/basicnutrit ... ml#miracle
Listen to all,
plucking a feather from every passing goose,
but follow no one absolutely

Cobwebby
Posts: 1716
Joined: Mon 29 Oct 2007 0:55

Re: Vitamins

Post by Cobwebby » Mon 19 May 2008 1:35

On one hand there are many who say just get more sun for Vitamin D while more and more doctor's are saying stay out of the sun, or cover up because of the risk of skin cancer.

Testing for Vitamin D deficiency should become routine. I'm grateful I go to an endocrinologist-she's the only one who tested for it.
The greater part of our happiness or misery
depends on our dispositions,
and not on our circumstances.
Martha Washington

OneGuest
Posts: 300
Joined: Wed 21 Nov 2007 4:08

Re: Vitamins

Post by OneGuest » Thu 5 Jun 2008 2:09

http://prensa.ugr.es/prensa/research/ve ... p?nota=525

26/02/2008 - A nutritional supplement could improve the clinical situation of ICU patients

- For the first time in Spain, it has been determined the exact quantity of vitamins A, E and C and minerals needed to improve the clinic situation of critical patients.

- The proposed diet is the result of a study carried our by researchers of the University of Granada and the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital.

- This study has been carried out on 60 patients who had been in the Intensive Cure Unit (ICU) at least for a week.

UGR News Scientists from the University of Granada and the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital have found out that some critical patients could improve their oxide stress and, consequently, their clinical situation by taking a simple exogenous antioxidant treatment through food. This study has proved that the oxide stress increase during patients stays in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), due to the low levels of antioxidant food consumption.

The oxide stress is caused by the imbalance between the reactive oxygen substances production and the organism defence mechanisms which acts rapidly in the detoxification of these substances or repairs the damage. The oxide stress is involved in many diseases like atherosclerosis, Parkinson, Alzheimer, and it is also significant in the aging process.

This study made by the University of Granada has been carried out by Jimena Abilés, and headed by doctor Elena Planells (Departament of Physiology of the University of Granada), doctor Antonio Pérez de la Cruz (head of the Nutrition and Dietetics Unit of the Ruiz de Alda Hospital in Granada) and doctor Eduardo Aguayo (specialist in the Intensive Cure Unit of this same hospital).

First time in Spain
The scientists worked on 60 patients that, for at least a week, had stayed at the Intensive Cure Unit (ICU) of the Virgen de las Nieves Hospital, analyzing their oxide stress levels.

They determined, for the first time in Spain, the exact quantity of each type of vitamins (A, E and C) and minerals that patients needed to take through diet for proper antioxidant defences.

The researchers hope the study will be useful to establish new recommendations for critical patients in our country. The results of this investigation have been recently published in the medical journal "Critical Care".

Reference
Dr Jimena Abilés. Departament of Physiology of the University of Granada.
Mobile: 665894024.
E-mail.: jimesolea@yahoo.es

User avatar
Yvonne
Posts: 2421
Joined: Fri 27 Jul 2007 16:02

Re: Vitamins

Post by Yvonne » Sun 8 Jun 2008 22:18

Low vitamin D levels associated with peripheral arterial disease

NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) are associated with an increased prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD), according to a report in the June issue of Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology.

"Vitamin D may have important roles outside of calcium and phosphate metabolism and osteoporosis," Dr. Michal L. Melamed from Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York told Reuters Health.

Dr. Melamed and colleagues evaluated the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and the prevalence of PAD in the general population using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

Mean serum 25(OH)D levels were significantly lower in subjects with PAD than in those without PAD, the authors report, but the two groups did not differ in serum calcium, phosphate, or parathyroid hormone levels.

Participants in the lowest 25(OH)D quartile were 2.18 times more likely to have PAD than were participants in the highest 25(OH)D quartile after adjustment for age, gender, and race.

Each 10 ng/mL decrease in serum 25(OH)D was associated with a 35% increase in the prevalence of PAD, the investigators say.

"Several mechanisms have been invoked in the literature to support a potential anti-atherosclerotic activity of vitamin D," the researchers note.

Dr. Melamed cautions, however, that "the evidence is not quite there yet to suggest patients with PAD would benefit from vitamin D supplementation." She added, "If there is a causal relationship between low vitamin D levels and PAD, it may be that long-standing vitamin D deficiency causes PAD and that intervening once PAD is already established may not change the course of the disease. Therefore, more studies are needed in this area."

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2008;28:1179-1185.

Copyright Reuters 2008.

http://www.clpmag.com/reuters_article.a ... id001.html
Listen to all,
plucking a feather from every passing goose,
but follow no one absolutely

OneGuest
Posts: 300
Joined: Wed 21 Nov 2007 4:08

Re: Vitamins

Post by OneGuest » Thu 12 Jun 2008 20:16

Public release date: 11-Jun-2008

Vitamin supplement little more than 'snake oil'

A popular vitamin supplement is being advertised with claims that are demonstrably untrue, as revealed by research published in the open access journal BMC Pharmacology.

Benfotiamine is a synthetic derivative of thiamine (vitamin B1). It is marketed heavily as a dietary supplement using a selection of unsubstantiated, 'not-quite-medical' claims that tend to characterize this field.

A large part of this campaign has been built around the belief that benfotiamine is lipid-soluble and, therefore, more physiologically active. Scientific research led by Dr Lucien Bettendorff of the Center for Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology at the University of Liège, Belgium, has entirely disproved these claims.

A severe deficiency of thiamine is known to cause weight loss, emotional disturbances, impaired sensory perception, weakness and pain in the limbs, and periods of irregular heart rate. Deficiencies can occur as a result of alcoholism or malnutrition.

As thiamine itself is very poorly absorbed by the body, it must be taken in as various precursor forms. This research shows that benfotiamine may not be as effective in this regard as has been claimed, in particular concerning its ability to raise effective thiamine levels in the central nervous system.

According to Bettendorff, "We suspect that those companies selling benfotiamine have poisoned much of the recent literature in an attempt to bestow it with properties that it does not have".

Benfotiamine has been previously shown to prevent several diabetic complications in experimental animal models. The researchers carried out experiments in mice in which benfotiamine was administered using several different techniques and the resulting levels of thiamine were measured in various parts of the body.

Contrary to other claims about its solubility, the results show that benfotiamine is only sparingly soluble in water under physiological conditions and cannot be dissolved in octanol or oils.

As Bettendorff explains, "Benfotiamine is very often considered a 'lipid-soluble' thiamine precursor from the disulfide derivative family though it is neither lipid-soluble, nor a disulfide.

Sometimes, it is considered to have more biological activity than thiamine disulfides, but our study shows that it does not even penetrate cell membranes, except in those cells containing an ecto-alkaline phosphatase.

There is no evidence that benfotiamine would be more effective than other precursors as a therapeutic agent for complications of diabetes."

Due to the wide-reaching nature of the false claims about this supplement, it was important to the authors that their work be published in BMC Pharmacology as it is an open access journal that makes research freely available.

###

Notes to Editors

1. Benfotiamine, a synthetic S-acyl thiamine derivative, has different mechanisms of action and a different pharmacological profile than lipid-soluble thiamine disulfide derivatives
Marie-Laure Volvert, Sandrine Seyen, Marie Piette, Brigitte Evrard, Marjorie Gangolf, Jean-Christophe Plumier and Lucien Bettendorff
BMC Pharmacology (in press)

Post Reply