Potential for Tick-borne Bartonelloses

Topics with information and discussion about published studies related to Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.
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rlstanley
Posts: 1637
Joined: Mon 3 Dec 2007 2:53

Potential for Tick-borne Bartonelloses

Post by rlstanley » Sat 27 Feb 2010 19:42

Emerging Infectious Diseases

Volume 16, Number 3–March 2010
Perspective

Potential for Tick-borne Bartonelloses

Emmanouil Angelakis, Sarah A. Billeter, Edward B. Breitschwerdt, Bruno B. Chomel, and Didier Raoult
Author affiliations: Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille, France (E. Angelakis, D. Raoult); North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA (S.A. Billeter, E.B. Breitschwerdt); and University of California School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, California, USA (B.B. Chomel)
Abstract

As worldwide vectors of human infectious diseases, ticks are considered to be second only to mosquitoes. Each tick species has preferred environmental conditions and biotopes that determine its geographic distribution, the pathogens it vectors, and the areas that pose risk for tick-borne diseases. Researchers have identified an increasing number of bacterial pathogens that are transmitted by ticks, including Anaplasma, Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia spp. Recent reports involving humans and canines suggest that ticks should be considered as potential vectors of Bartonella spp. To strengthen this suggestion, numerous molecular surveys to detect Bartonella DNA in ticks have been conducted. However, there is little evidence that Bartonella spp. can replicate within ticks and no definitive evidence of transmission by a tick to a vertebrate host.
...

We present an overview of the various Bartonella spp. that have been detected in ticks and discuss human cases of Bartonella infection that are suggestive of tick transmission. Because of the rapidly expanding number of reservoir host–adapted Bartonella spp. that have been discovered in recent years, efforts to clarify modes of transmission are relevant to public health in terms of interrupting the transmission process. As evolving evidence supports the ability of this genus to induce chronic intravascular infections in humans, improved understanding of vector competence could facilitate efforts to block pathogen transmission, which would help improve human health (9).
Full article: http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/3/385.htm
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rlstanley
Posts: 1637
Joined: Mon 3 Dec 2007 2:53

Re: Potential for Tick-borne Bartonelloses

Post by rlstanley » Mon 1 Mar 2010 21:46

Emerging Infectious Diseases

Volume 16, Number 3–March 2010

Perspective

Bartonella spp. Transmission by Ticks Not Established

Sam R. Telford III and Gary P. Wormser

Author affiliations: Tufts University Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, North Grafton, Massachussetts, USA (S.R. Telford III); and New York Medical College, Valhalla, New York, USA (G.P. Wormser)
Abstract
Bartonella spp. infect humans and many animal species. Mainly because PCR studies have demonstrated Bartonella DNA in ticks, some healthcare providers believe that these microorganisms are transmitted by ticks. B. henselae, in particular, is regarded as being present in and transmissible by the Ixodes scapularis tick. The presence of a microbial agent within a tick, however, does not imply that the tick might transmit it during the course of blood feeding and does not confer epidemiologic importance.

After a critical review of the evidence for and against tick transmission, we conclude that transmission of any Bartonella spp. by ticks, to animals or humans, has not been established. We are unaware of any well-documented case of B. henselae transmission by I. scapularis ticks.
Table 1. Reasons that Bartonella species might be transmitted by ticks

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• Certain other arthropods can transmit Bartonella species.

• Seropositivity to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii in dogs correlates with tick exposure and with seropositivity to other tick-borne pathogens. Seropositivity to B. henselae in feral cats in the United Kingdom correlated with seropositivity to Borrelia burgdorferi.

• Bartonella spp. DNA is present in ticks.

• Cases of B. henselae infection with preceding tick bite have been reported.

• Transstadial transmission of B. henselae in Ixodes ricinus ticks and transmission by I. ricinus ticks during a blood meal using an artificial feeding system have been shown.

• Case control study of cat-scratch disease found a significant association with having had a tick on the body, but this association lost statistical significance on a bivariate analysis controlling for kitten exposure.

• Bartonella spp. are commonly present in Peromyscus leucopus mice, a major host for deer ticks and a main reservoir of Borrelia burgdorferi.
Table 2. Reasons that transmission of Bartonella henselae by deer ticks is unlikely or unproven

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• Typical cat-scratch disease after a recognized deer tick bite has not been observed.

• Cat-scratch disease has a different seasonal pattern from that of Lyme disease.

• Appropriate seroepidemiologic studies have not been done.

• Vector competence of ticks for B. henselae in an animal system has not been proven.

• No convincing evidence of B. henselae in deer ticks has been reported.

• The Bartonella species present in Peromyscus leucopus mice is not B. henselae.

• The US cases with convincing evidence of B. henselae infection after a tick bite occurred in areas where Lyme disease is not endemic.

Full article: http://www.cdc.gov/eid/content/16/3/379.htm
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rlstanley
Posts: 1637
Joined: Mon 3 Dec 2007 2:53

Re: Potential for Tick-borne Bartonelloses

Post by rlstanley » Wed 12 May 2010 16:59

Up.

Recent questions to me about this topic.
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hanegalen
Posts: 145
Joined: Fri 3 Aug 2007 16:41

Re: Potential for Tick-borne Bartonelloses

Post by hanegalen » Thu 13 May 2010 10:37

.there might be other modes of transmission -dont think so.Note the last lines at the end of the sudy. that some cases have ben reported after the paper was concluded.
Gale
Last edited by hanegalen on Fri 15 Jul 2011 8:40, edited 1 time in total.

Martian
Posts: 1944
Joined: Thu 26 Jul 2007 18:29
Location: Friesland, the Netherlands

Re: Potential for Tick-borne Bartonelloses

Post by Martian » Tue 27 Jul 2010 16:06

hanegalen wrote:Note the last lines at the end of the sudy. that some cases have ben reported after the paper was concluded.
These are those last lines:
Addendum

Since the submission of this manuscript, we found 3 cases of B. henselae infection transmitted by Dermancentor spp. ticks. These patients had scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy.

The following is the publication about this:
Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Feb 15;50(4):549-51.

Scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy caused by Bartonella henselae after Tick Bite.

Angelakis E, Pulcini C, Waton J, Imbert P, Socolovschi C, Edouard S, Dellamonica P, Raoult D.

Unité de Recherche de Maladies Infectieuses Transmissibles et Emergents UMR 6236, Centre National de Références Scientifques-Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, Faculté de Médecine et de Pharmacie, Marseille, France.

Abstract

Rickettsia slovaca and Rickettsia raoultii have been associated with a syndrome characterized by scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy following tick bites. However, in many cases, the causative agent remains undetermined. We report 3 cases of this syndrome caused by Bartonella henselae, and we propose the term "SENLAT" to collectively describe this clinical entity.

PMID: 20070235 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

The review Bartonella spp. Transmission by Ticks Not Established. by Sam R. Telford III and Gary P. Wormser comments about that:
A more recent study described 3 patients from Europe for whom a scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy were attributed to tick transmission of B. henselae.

Molecular detection of the microorganism by PCR of a biopsy specimen from the eschar, in conjunction with a high serum antibody titer by immunofluorescence assay, document B. henselae infection for 2 of the patients; a tick bite at the lesion site was presumed but not proven for either patient. Both had been in contact with cats that may well have transmitted this infection because the clinical features were indistinguishable from those of cat-scratch disease.

The third patient, who had no cat exposure, had a documented bite from a Dermacentor marginatus tick that had PCR evidence of B. henselae infection. Whether the patient actually had B. henselae infection is questionable because PCR testing of tissue from the eschar was negative and antibodies to B. henselae could not be detected by immunofluorescence assay. The sole stated basis for the diagnosis was a positive Western blot result, but neither the interpretive criteria used nor the specificity of this testing were provided.

When associated with a documented tick bite, the most common cause for a scalp eschar and neck lymphadenopathy is Rickettsia slovaca, but other rickettsia and even Francisella tularensis are possible causes, and in at least 25% of cases no pathogen can be identified.
So it looks like that was also no conclusive evidence.

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