Borrelia and the Brain

Topics with information and discussion about published studies related to Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.
Joe Ham
Posts: 489
Joined: Fri 27 Jul 2007 6:15
Location: New Mexico, USA

Re: Borrelia and the Brain

Post by Joe Ham » Wed 25 Mar 2009 19:04

Neurology. 1990 Oct;40(10):1535-40.
Comment in: Neurology. 1991 Mar;41(3):463.

Borrelia burgdorferi infection of the brain: characterization of the organism and response to antibiotics and immune sera in the mouse model.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2215944

Pachner AR, Itano A.
Department of Neurology, Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC 20007.

To learn more about the neurologic involvement in Lyme disease, we inoculated inbred mice with the causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi. We cultured brains and other organs, and measured anti-B burgdorferi antibody titers. We further studied a brain isolate for its plasmid DNA content and its response in vitro to immune sera and antibiotics.

One strain of B burgdorferi, N40, was consistently infective for mice, and resulted in chronic infection of the bladder and spleen. SJL mice developed fewer culture-positive organs and had lower antibody titers than Balb/c and C57Bl/6 mice.

Organism was cultured from the brain early in the course of infection, and this isolate, named N40Br, was further studied in vitro.

The plasmid content of N40Br was different from that of the infecting strain, implying either a highly selective process during infection or DNA rearrangement in the organism in vivo.

N40Br was very sensitive to antibiotics, but only after prolonged incubation.


Immune sera from both mice and humans infected with B burgdorferi were unable to completely kill the organism by complement-mediated cytotoxicity. These data demonstrate that B burgdorferi infects the brain of experimental animals, and is resistant to immune sera in vitro but sensitive to prolonged treatment with antibiotics

Joe Ham
Posts: 489
Joined: Fri 27 Jul 2007 6:15
Location: New Mexico, USA

Early vs Late CSF findings / Testing

Post by Joe Ham » Wed 25 Mar 2009 19:26

J Neurol. 1994 Dec;242(1):26-36.
Variable CSF findings in early and late Lyme neuroborreliosis: a follow-up study in 47 patients.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7897449

Kaiser R.
Department of Neurology, University of Freiburg, Germany.

The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 37 patients with early Lyme neuroborreliosis (ELN) and of 10 patients with late Lyme neuroborreliosis (LLN, duration of symptoms > or = 7 months) was investigated for typical features differentiating between acute and chronic courses of disease. Individual patients were studied after 2 and 4 weeks, and 3, 6, and 12 months.

Patients with ELN presented predominantly with symptoms of the peripheral nervous system, while patients with LLN generally suffered from symptoms of the central nervous system.

At the first lumbar puncture, patients with ELN revealed a more intense pleocytosis in the CSF (P < 0.02) and a higher intrathecal synthesis of total IgM (P < 0.0003) and of Borrelia burgdorferi-specific IgM antibodies (P < 0.01).

At the same time, in patients with LLN, the blood-CSF barrier was more severely impaired (P = 0.03), and local production of total IgG (P = 0.0001), of B. burgdorferi-specific IgG antibodies (P = 0.03) and of total IgA (P = 0.001) was more markedly increased.

The quantity of intrathecally produced B. burgdorferi-specific IgA antibodies did not differ between the two study groups. Clinical recovery was usually accompanied by a considerable improvement of the blood-CSF barrier function and pleocytosis.

After 6 months, the intrathecal synthesis of total IgG had significantly decreased in patients with ELN but not in those with LLN.

At the same time, the CSF of most patients in both study groups still contained intrathecally produced B. burgdorferi-specific IgG antibodies. In the absence of clinical illness or symptoms of inflammation 6 and 12 months after treatment, B. burgdorferi-specific IgG antibodies in the CSF might simply indicate an anamnestic [memory] reaction to a previous infection of the central nervous system.

Six months after antibiotic treatment, patients with ELN still revealed evidence of intrathecal synthesis of total IgM, whereas those with LLN did not. These antibodies, however, were not related to B. burgdorferi.

Joe Ham
Posts: 489
Joined: Fri 27 Jul 2007 6:15
Location: New Mexico, USA

Early Invasion of the Brain

Post by Joe Ham » Wed 25 Mar 2009 19:35

J Infect Dis. 1990 Jun;161(6):1187-93.
Borrelia burgdorferi in the central nervous system: experimental and clinical evidence for early invasion.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2345299

Garcia-Monco JC, Villar BF, Alen JC, Benach JL.
Department of Pathology, State University of New York, Stony Brook 11794-8691.

Intravenous injection into adult Lewis rats of live Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, was followed by increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier.

Permeability was measured by the ratio of 125I-labeled albumin in cerebrospinal fluid to that in blood.
Permeability changes were dose-dependent, began 12 h after inoculation, and reversed within 1 week.
Only live, intravenously inoculated organisms produced impairment of the blood-brain barrier.

A spirochetal strain-dependent effect was noted in that changes were more marked with a recent isolate than with a strain in long-term in vitro culture.

Mild pleocytosis and spirochetes were noted in the cerebrospinal fluid of rats with increased blood-brain barrier permeability. This experimental evidence for early central nervous system invasion was pursued in studies of the human disease. Specific B. burgdorferi antigens could be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with early Lyme disease by use of murine monoclonal antibodies as probes.

Lorima
Posts: 914
Joined: Mon 29 Oct 2007 20:47

Re: Borrelia and the Brain

Post by Lorima » Fri 14 Dec 2012 12:58

Bump.
"I have to understand the world, you see."
Richard Feynman

Lorima
Posts: 914
Joined: Mon 29 Oct 2007 20:47

Re: Borrelia and the Brain

Post by Lorima » Fri 18 Jan 2013 14:48

up
"I have to understand the world, you see."
Richard Feynman

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