The Emerging Role of Microbial Biofilm in Lyme Neuroborreliosis

Topics with information and discussion about published studies related to Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.
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The Emerging Role of Microbial Biofilm in Lyme Neuroborreliosis

Post by X-member » Mon 10 Dec 2018 16:17

REVIEW ARTICLE
Front. Neurol., 03 December 2018 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fneur.2018.01048

The Emerging Role of Microbial Biofilm in Lyme Neuroborreliosis

Enea Gino Di Domenico1*, Ilaria Cavallo1, Valentina Bordignon1, Giovanna D'Agosto1, Martina Pontone1, Elisabetta Trento1, Maria Teresa Gallo1, Grazia Prignano1, Fulvia Pimpinelli1, Luigi Toma2 and Fabrizio Ensoli1

1Clinical Pathology and Microbiology Unit, San Gallicano Dermatological Institute IRCCS, Rome, Italy
2Department of Research, Advanced Diagnostics, and Technological Innovation, Translational Research Area, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute IRCCS, Rome, Italy


https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10 ... 01048/full

A quote:
Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common tick-borne disease caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi in North America and Borrelia afzelii or Borrelia garinii in Europe and Asia, respectively. The infection affects multiple organ systems, including the skin, joints, and the nervous system. Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) is the most dangerous manifestation of Lyme disease, occurring in 10–15% of infected individuals. During the course of the infection, bacteria migrate through the host tissues altering the coagulation and fibrinolysis pathways and the immune response, reaching the central nervous system (CNS) within 2 weeks after the bite of an infected tick. The early treatment with oral antimicrobials is effective in the majority of patients with LNB. Nevertheless, persistent forms of LNB are relatively common, despite targeted antibiotic therapy. It has been observed that the antibiotic resistance and the reoccurrence of Lyme disease are associated with biofilm-like aggregates in B. burgdorferi, B. afzelii, and B. garinii, both in vitro and in vivo, allowing Borrelia spp. to resist to adverse environmental conditions. Indeed, the increased tolerance to antibiotics described in the persisting forms of Borrelia spp., is strongly reminiscent of biofilm growing bacteria, suggesting a possible role of biofilm aggregates in the development of the different manifestations of Lyme disease including LNB.

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