Minocycline Data

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LymeEnigma
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Re: Minocycline Data

Post by LymeEnigma » Fri 6 Jun 2008 20:18


Joe Ham
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Re: Minocycline Data

Post by Joe Ham » Sat 14 Jun 2008 6:31

Minocycline, a Tetracycline Derivative, Is Neuroprotective against Excitotoxicity by Inhibiting Activation and Proliferation of Microglia

The Journal of Neuroscience, April 15, 2001, 21(8):2580-2588

Tiina Tikka1, Bernd L. Fiebich3, Gundars Goldsteins1, Riitta Keinänen1, and Jari Koistinaho1, 2
1 A. I. Virtanen Institute for Molecular Sciences, University of Kuopio, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland, 2 Department of Clinical Pathology, Kuopio University Hospital, FIN-70211 Kuopio, Finland, and 3 Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Freiburg Medical School, D-79104 Freiburg, Germany

Minocycline, a semisynthetic tetracycline derivative, protects brain against global and focal ischemia in rodents.

We examined whether minocycline reduces excitotoxicity in primary neuronal cultures. Minocycline (0.02 µM) significantly increased neuronal survival in mixed spinal cord (SC) cultures treated with 500 µM glutamate or 100 µM kainate for 24 hr. Treatment with these excitotoxins induced a dose-dependent proliferation of microglia that was associated with increased release of interleukin-1 (IL-1 ) and was followed by increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release. The excitotoxicity was enhanced when microglial cells were cultured on top of SC cultures.

Minocycline prevented excitotoxin-induced microglial proliferation and the increased release of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites and IL-1 . Excitotoxins induced microglial proliferation and increased the release of NO metabolites and IL-1 also in pure microglia cultures, and these responses were inhibited by minocycline. In both SC and pure microglia cultures, excitotoxins activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) exclusively in microglia. Minocycline inhibited p38 MAPK activation in SC cultures, and treatment with SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, but not with PD98059, a p44/42 MAPK inhibitor, increased neuronal survival. In pure microglia cultures, glutamate induced transient activation of p38 MAPK, and this was inhibited by minocycline. These findings indicate that the proliferation and activation of microglia contributes to excitotoxicity, which is inhibited by minocycline, an antibiotic used in severe human infections.

Abstract:
http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/abstract/21/8/2580

The full version wherein lies the devil and his minions (the details) and a lot of references and citations:
http://www.jneurosci.org/cgi/content/full/21/8/2580

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Yvonne
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Re: Minocycline Data

Post by Yvonne » Sat 26 Jul 2008 20:08

Arch Intern Med. 1994 Jul 25;154(14):1633-40. Links

Minocycline pneumonitis and eosinophilia. A report on eight patients.

Sitbon O, Bidel N, Dussopt C, Azarian R, Braud ML, Lebargy F, Fourme T, de Blay F, Piard F, Camus P.
Service de Pneumologie et de Réanimation Respiratoire, Hôpital Antoine Béclère, Université Paris-Sud, Clamart, France.

We identified eight patients (six women and two men) who had pulmonary infiltrates during treatment with minocycline hydrochloride between 1989 and 1992 in French referral centers for drug-induced pulmonary diseases. Clinical files, chest roentgenograms, computed tomographic scans, pulmonary function, and bronchoalveolar lavage data were reviewed. Minocycline treatment was given for acne (n = 4), genital infection (n = 3), and Lyme disease (n = 1). The duration of treatment averaged 13 +/- 5 days (mean +/- SE); the total dose, 2060 +/- 540 mg. Patients presented with dyspnea (n = 8), fever (n = 7), dry cough (n = 5), hemoptysis (n = 1), chest pain (n = 2), fatigue (n = 3), and rash (n = 3). Chest roentgenograms showed bilateral infiltrates in all cases. Pulmonary function was measured in five patients; four had airflow obstruction and two had mild restriction. Blood gas tests demonstrated hypoxemia in seven patients (58 +/- 3 mmHg). Seven patients had blood eosinophilia (1.76 +/- 0.2 x 10(9)/L). Bronchoalveolar lavage (performed in seven patients) showed an increased proportion of eosinophils (0.30 +/- 0.07). The Cd4+/CD8+ ratio was determined in four cases and was low in three. Transbronchial lung biopsy, performed in two patients, showed interstitial pneumonitis in both patients, with marked infiltration by eosinophils in one patient. The outcome was favorable in all patients. Because of severe symptoms, steroid therapy was required in three patients. Rechallenge was not attempted. We conclude that minocycline can induce the syndrome of pulmonary infiltrates and eosinophilia, that presenting symptoms may be severe and may culminate in transient respiratory failure, and that the disease has a favorable prognosis.

PMID: 8031212
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Joe Ham
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Re: Minocycline Data

Post by Joe Ham » Sun 29 Mar 2009 5:37

J Infect Dis. 2009 Mar 17.
The Antibiotics Doxycycline and Minocycline Inhibit the Inflammatory Responses to the Lyme Disease Spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19301981

Bernardino AL, Kaushal D, Philipp MT.
Division of Bacteriology and Parasitology, Tulane National Primate Research Center, Tulane University, Covington, Louisiana.

Tetracyclines moderate inflammatory responses of various etiologies. We hypothesized that tetracyclines, in addition to their antimicrobial function, could exert control over the inflammation elicited by Borrelia burgdorferi.

To model systemic effects, we used the human monocytic cell line THP-1; to model effects in the central nervous system, we used rhesus monkey brain astrocytes and microglia. Cells were stimulated with live or sonicated B. burgdorferi or with the lipoprotein outer surface protein A in the presence of increasing concentrations of doxycycline or minocycline.

Both antibiotics significantly reduced the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 in a dose-dependent manner in all cell types.

Microarray analyses of the effect of doxycycline on gene transcription in spirochete-stimulated monocytes revealed that the NFKB and CHUK (alias, IKKA) genes were down-regulated. Functionally, phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha and binding of NF-kappaB to target DNA were both reduced in these cells. Our results suggest that tetracyclines may have a dual therapeutic effect in Lyme disease.

PMID: 19301981 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]

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Yvonne
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Re: Minocycline Data

Post by Yvonne » Sat 15 May 2010 15:25

Muscle Nerve. 2010 Apr;41(4):547-9.

Minocycline-induced dermatomyositis.

Geddes MR, Sinnreich M, Chalk C.

Department of Neurology, McGill University, Room L7-313, 1650 Cedar Avenue, Montreal, Quebec, H3G 1A4 Canada.

Abstract
Minocycline is a semisynthetic tetracycline that causes a spectrum of autoimmune adverse reactions. We report a previously healthy patient who developed a panniculitis and histopathologically proven dermatomyositis during treatment with minocycline for acne vulgaris. Her signs and symptoms resolved completely upon cessation of minocycline. This case illustrates a novel adverse effect of a widely prescribed medication.

PMID: 20120014

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dermatomyositis
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Cobwebby
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Re: Minocycline Data

Post by Cobwebby » Sun 16 May 2010 23:18

I thought minocycline was going to be the death of me and not because of some mundane allergic reaction but because of the alternating periods of the most acute brain clarity I had ever experienced with the most profound feelings of doom, gloom and dizziness. I had to sleep off the effects and never took it again.
Very frightening.
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depends on our dispositions,
and not on our circumstances.
Martha Washington

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