Tick diseases in Animals

General or non-medical topics with information and discussion related to Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.
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Yvonne
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Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Tue 11 Dec 2007 9:23

Dogs

Histopathological Studies of Experimental Lyme Disease in the Dog

Summary
Experimental borrelia infection was induced in 62 specific–pathogen-free beagle dogs by exposure to Ixodes scapularis ticks harbouring the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi. Clinical signs of Lyme disease occurred in 39/62 dogs, the remaining 23 being subclinically infected. Clinical signs consisted of one to six episodes of transitory lameness with joint swelling and pain, most commonly affecting the elbow or shoulder joints. The polymerase chain reaction and culture demonstrated that the dogs remained infected for up to 581 days. At necropsy, gross findings consisted of lymphadenopathy in the area of tick attachment. Microscopical changes consisted of effusive fibrinosuppurative inflammation or nonsuppurative inflammation, or both, affecting synovial membranes, joint capsules and associated tendon sheaths. Plasma cells dominated areas of chronic inflammation, with CD3+ T cells being present in lesser numbers. Microscopical signs of arthritis were polyarticular and more widespread than indicated by clinical signs, and most of the subclinically affected animals also had synovitis. In areas of tick attachment to the skin, hyperkeratosis and a mixture of suppurative and nonsuppurative dermatitis were encountered. Lymphadenopathy in superficial lymph nodes resulted from follicular and parafollicular hyperplasia. In 14/62 dogs, lymphoplasmacytic periarteritis and perineuritis were noted, resembling lesions found in human Lyme disease and syphilis, in which an underlying microangiopathy has been proposed.

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_o ... ff7054abdd
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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Tue 11 Dec 2007 9:25

1: Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007 Summer;7(2):189-92. Links
Bartonella henselae in Ixodes ricinus Ticks Removed from Dogs.Podsiadly E, Chmielewski T, Sochon E, Tylewska-Wierzbanowska S.
National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw, Poland.

Bartonella spp. is an etiologic agent of vector-borne infections. Bartonella spp. was searched for in adult Ixodes ricinus ticks removed from dogs and cats using specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequence analysis of gltA gene. Bartonella henselae DNA was detected in 5 of 102 tested ticks. All PCR-positive ticks were removed from dogs. Four of were engorged, one was unfed. The data demonstrate that B. henselae is able to inhabit ticks. This is the first report about the existence of B. henselae in ticks removed from dogs. It is, however, an open issue that needs further investigation if ticks consist a new competent vector involved in transmission of bartonellosis.

PMID: 17627437
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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Tue 11 Dec 2007 9:25

Vet Clin Pathol. 2007 Jun;36(2):212-6.Links
Spirochetemia caused by Borrelia turicatae infection in 3 dogs in Texas.Whitney MS, Schwan TG, Sultemeier KB, McDonald PS, Brillhart MN.
Texas Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, Texas A&M University, Amarillo, TX, USA. whitneym@missouri.edu

Spirochetemia was diagnosed in 2 Siberian Huskies and a Rottweiler from the northwestern region of Texas between June 1999 and October 2001. Clinical findings were nonspecific; tick exposure was documented in 2 of the dogs. Hematologic abnormalities included anemia (n=2), neutrophilia (n=2, including 1 with a left shift), lymphopenia (n=3), eosinopenia (n=3), and thrombocytopenia (n=2). One anemic dog had a positive Coombs' test. In 1 dog, Western blot analysis of serum yielded multiple positive bands with B turicatae lysate, indicating the spirochetemia most likely was due to B turicatae infection. In 2 dogs, spirochetes were cultured from the blood and identified using DNA analysis as Borrelia turicatae; 1 of these dogs also was seropositive for Ehrlichia canis and B burgdorferi. In 2 cases, spirochetemia was more prominent in blood smears prepared immediately after sample collection than in smears prepared from EDTA blood. Two dogs recovered with doxycycline treatment; 1 dog declined clinically despite treatment and was euthanized. B turicatae is the agent of tick-borne (endemic) relapsing fever in humans and is distinct from B burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease; however, serologic cross-reactivity may occur. B turicatae is transmitted by the soft tick, Ornithodoros turicata, and infection should be considered in dogs with spirochetemia and possible exposure to the tick vector.

PMID: 17523100
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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Tue 11 Dec 2007 9:26

Bernese Mountain Dogs suffer more often from glomerulonephritis than dogs of other
breeds. B. burgdorferi sensu lato was suspected as a cause. The goal of this study
was to determine the prevalence of antibodies against B. burgdorferi and the
occurrence of proteinuria in Bernese Mountain Dogs compared to dogs of other
breeds.
Between Mai 2003 and Mai 2004 blood from 160 healthy Bernese Mountain Dogs
and 62 control dogs was tested for antibodies against B. burgdorferi and urine for
proteinuria. At the same time all Bernese Mountain Dogs and all dogs with proteinuria
presented to the Clinic for Small Animal Internal Medicine, University of Zurich were
examined. To further evaluate proteinuria an in-clinic test for canine microalbuminuria
and urine electrophoresis were performed.
Out of the 160 Bernese Mountain Dogs 94 (59%) had antibodies against B.
burgdorfei and of the 62 control dogs 11 (18%). Overt proteinuria was diagnosed in 3
Bernese Mountain Dogs and in no control dog. Bernese Mountain Dogs had
significantly more often antibodies against B. burgdorferi compared to dogs of other
breeds but proteinuria was not found more often. However in the group of dogs
presented to the clinic with proteinuria (n=30) Bernese Mountain Dogs were
significantly overrepresented with 12 dogs (40%). The reason for this is not clear.
Follow-up studies are needed to establish a possible association between B.
burgdorfei and glomerulonephritis in Bernese Mountain Dogs.

http://www.dissertationen.unizh.ch/2006 ... r/diss.pdf
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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Tue 11 Dec 2007 9:28

Signs of Lyme Disease in Dogs
Of the hundreds of cases of canine Lyme Disease that I have seen, over 90 percent of canine patients were admitted with signs of limping (usually one foreleg), lymph node swelling in the affected limb, and a temperature of 103 degrees (101 to 102.5 degrees is normal). The limping usually progresses over three to four days from mild and barely noticeable to complete disuse of the painful leg. Once the dog starts to be affected by the bacteria, Lyme Disease can progress from a mild discomfort to the stage where a dog will be in such joint and muscle pain it will refuse to move; it is not uncommon for an owner to have to carry a sick dog into the animal hospital. Over the span of two or three days a dog can progress from normal to completely unable to walk due to generalized joint pain. In addition to joint damage, the bacteria can affect the dog's heart muscle and nerve tissue. If the disease is diagnosed in time, treatment can cure the dog before permanent joint or nerve damage occurs. Certain antibiotics, such as the Tetracyclines, are very helpful in eliminating the disease.
Generally, the diagnosis of Lyme Disease is based upon clinical signs and history. For example, if a dog ran or played normally a few days ago, has had no signs of trauma or previous arthritic discomfort, and now displays tenderness upon palpation of the affected limb and has a mild fever and swollen lymph nodes, I'm going to seriously consider Lyme Disease as a possible diagnosis.
On the other hand, just as in human medicine, Lyme Disease is called "The Great Imitator" because it has often been mistakenly diagnosed when another disorder is present, such as an autoimmune disease, lymph tissue cancer, Blastomycosis, or septicemia. Just as vexing is the fact that at times other similar-appearing diseases are diagnosed when the culprit is actually Lyme Disease. There are published reports of Lyme Disease being misdiagnosed and over diagnosed in human medicine.

Keeping other disorders in mind, if I suspect Lyme Disease, I start treatment immediately, generally prescribing an antibiotic such as tetracycline and possibly some aspirin if the dog is in a lot of pain. Many veterinarians do not wait for blood tests to confirm the tentative diagnosis because in dogs the information obtained may be confusing and require too much time to hear back from the lab. I have seen patients that from clinical experience I know have Lyme Disease, yet their blood test curiously indicates no exposure to the disease. And there are numerous cases of normal-appearing, healthy dogs with positive blood tests for Lyme Disease.
Fortunately, over ninety percent of dogs treated within the first week of obvious signs of Lyme Disease will respond rapidly to treatment with a tetracycline antibiotic. This medicine is administered for at least three weeks. In my experience, five percent of dogs will have some type of relapse of signs such as cardiac or neurological difficulties even after treatment . Some of these patients will experience chronic, lifelong joint pain from the damage caused by the bacteria and its direct and indirect stress to joint tissues. The earlier the antibiotic is started in the course of the disease, the better the patient's chances of a complete recovery.

Can a dog contract Lyme Disease a second time? Yes. But, quite honestly, we don't know for sure if the reoccurrence is a second, distinct infection or a flare-up of the original episode (because the Borrelia organism replicates quite slowly). And, since dogs can harbor the bacteria in their tissues a long time before the disease is evident, Lyme Disease cases are showing up all year long. In the northern states, however, the summer months are the busiest for Lyme Disease case presentations.

http://www.thepetcenter.com/gen/lyme.html
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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Tue 11 Dec 2007 9:29

Vet Microbiol. 2007 Feb 25;120(1-2):132-41. Epub 2006 Oct 21. Links
Canine borreliosis: a laboratory diagnostic trial.Speck S, Reiner B, Streich WJ, Reusch C, Wittenbrink MM.
Institute of Veterinary Bacteriology, Vetsuisse Faculty, University of Zurich, Winterthurerstrasse 270, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland. speck@izw-berlin.de

The aim of this study was to investigate samples from dogs suggestive of active canine borreliosis (group A) by culture and PCR and the detection of antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in order to confirm a presumptive clinical diagnosis of canine borreliosis by laboratory results. Criteria for such a diagnosis were: history of tick exposure, lameness, neurological signs, nephropathy, lethargy, anorexia, and fever. A total of 302 samples comprising EDTA blood, urine, synovial fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, and tissue (skin, synovial membrane, kidney) from 98 dogs (26 with arthritis, 46 with neurological signs, 21 with nephropathy, 5 with non-specific symptoms) were collected and examined. Moreover, 55 healthy dogs (group B) and 236 dogs with symptoms or injuries unlikely to be associated with borreliosis (group C) were included in this study. Blood serum samples collected from all individuals (n=389) were analysed by ELISA. Twenty-one (21%) out of 98 dogs from group A, 4 (7%) out of 55 from group B and 15 (6%) out of 236 dogs from group C were positive for antibodies against B. burgdorferi sensu lato. The seroprevalences between groups A, B and C differed significantly. None of the corresponding samples investigated by PCR and culture were positive for spirochetal DNA or viable spirochetes. Borrelia afzelii was grown from one EDTA-blood sample but the corresponding blood serum sample remained antibody-negative. Consequently, the etiologic role of B. afzelii in this case is unclear. In approximately 40% of the presumptive canine borreliosis cases, other lesions have been found to be responsible for clinical signs. This study affirms that a definitive diagnosis of canine borreliosis cannot be made by clinical symptoms and serology based on a single consultation. Moreover, this study clearly revealed that the diagnostic sensitivity is enhanced by a thorough consideration and exclusion of other diseases.

PMID: 17101241
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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Tue 11 Dec 2007 9:31

Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1998 Dec 23;110(24):874-81. Links
Clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, and effect of antibiotic treatment on Lyme borreliosis in dogs.Straubinger RK, Straubinger AF, Summers BA, Jacobson RH, Erb HN.
James A. Baker Institute for Animal Health, Ithaca, New York, USA. rks4@cornell.edu

BACKGROUND: Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, infects humans and animals. In humans, the disease primarily affects the skin, large joints, and the nervous system days to months after infection. Data generated with appropriate animal model help to understand the fundamental mechanisms of the disease. OBJECTIVE: 1) More clearly define the clinical manifestation and pathogenetic mechanisms of Lyme disease in dogs; 2) evaluate the effect of antibiotics in dogs infected with B. burgdorferi; 3) describe the effects of corticosteroids on dogs persistently infected with B. burgdorferi. DESIGN: Specific-pathogen-free beagles were infected with B. burgdorferi using ticks collected in an endemic Lyme disease area. Clinical signs were recorded daily. Antibody titers were measured by ELISA at two-week intervals. B. burgdorferi organisms were detected in tissues by culture and PCR. Synovial fluids were evaluated microscopically and with a chemotaxis cell migration assay. Histological sections were examined for pathological lesions. Specific cytokine up-regulation in tissues was detected by RT-PCR. INTERVENTIONS: In three separate experiments, B. burgdorferi-infected dogs received antibiotic treatment (amoxicillin; azithromycin; ceftriaxone; doxycycline) for 30 consecutive days. Two subclinical persistently infected dogs received oral prednisone for 14 consecutive days starting at day 420 post-infection. RESULTS: Dogs developed acute arthritis in the joints closest to the tick bites after a median incubation period of 68 days. Synovial membranes of lame and non-lame dogs produced the chemokine IL-8 in response to B. burgdorferi. Antibiotic treatment prevented or resolved episodes of acute arthritis, but failed to eliminate the bacterium from infected dogs. Corticosteroid treatment reactivated Lyme disease in persistently infected dogs, which had not received antibiotics previously. CONCLUSIONS: B. burgdorferi disseminates through tissue by migration following tick inoculation, produces episodes of acute arthritis, and establishes persistent infection. The spirochete survives antibiotic treatment and disease can be reactivated in immunosuppressed animals.

PMID: 10048169


Persistence of Borrelia burgdorferi in experimentally infected dogs after antibiotic treatment.Straubinger RK, Summers BA, Chang YF, Appel MJ.
James A. Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA. rks4@cornell.edu

In specific-pathogen-free dogs experimentally infected with Borrelia burgdorferi by tick exposure, treatment with high doses of amoxicillin or doxycycline for 30 days diminished but failed to eliminate persistent infection. Although joint disease was prevented or cured in five of five amoxicillin- and five of six doxycycline-treated dogs, skin punch biopsies and multiple tissues from necropsy samples remained PCR positive and B. burgdorferi was isolated from one amoxicillin- and two doxycycline-treated dogs following antibiotic treatment. In contrast, B. burgdorferi was isolated from six of six untreated infected control dogs and joint lesions were found in four of these six dogs. Serum antibody levels to B. burgdorferi in all dogs declined after antibiotic treatment. Negative antibody levels were reached in four of six doxycycline- and four of six amoxicillin-treated dogs. However, in dogs that were kept in isolation for 6 months after antibiotic treatment was discontinued, antibody levels began to rise again, presumably in response to proliferation of the surviving pool of spirochetes. Antibody levels in untreated infected control dogs remained high.

PMID: 8968890
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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Tue 11 Dec 2007 9:31

: Ann Agric Environ Med. 2005;12(2):199-205. Links
Prevalence of DNA and antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in dogs suspected of borreliosis.Skotarczak B, Wodecka B, Rymaszewska A, Sawczuk M, Maciejewska A, Adamska M, Hermanowska-Szpakowicz T, Swierzbinska R.
Szczecin University, Faculty of Biology, Department of Genetics, Poland. Bogumila_Skotarczak@sus.univ.szczecin.pl

The aim of the paper was an attempt to correlate clinical signs with the presence of DNA of Borrelia burgdorferi (sensu lato) s.l. and the antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. in the blood of dogs. Among the animals studied there were 62 dogs delivered to the Veterinary Clinic in Szczecin and 30 from the Municipal Animal Shelter in Szczecin with varied clinical signs of borreliosis. In all cases the owners admitted frequent contacts of their dogs with ticks, both in the past, as well as shortly before the onset of sickness. We used two methods: PCR for detecting DNA of B. burgdorferi s.l. and ELISA test for detecting antibodies against the spirochete. Lameness, the principal symptom of canine borreliosis was the most frequent symptom of the group of 31 PCR-positive animals. The other most common symptoms in PCR-positive dogs were fever, swelling of joints and loss of body weight. DNA of B. burgdorferi s.l. was most frequently detected in the blood of dogs of the group 2-5 years old (13/54.1 %). ELISA tests specific for IgG antibodies were positive in 37 of 92 sera (40.2 %) taken from examined dogs. Lameness was observed in 15 of 37 IgG-seropositive dogs and in 25 of 55 seronegative animals. In 54 % of dogs with the antibodies, swelling of instep- and wrist joints was observed compared to only 24.4 % in seronegative dogs. An attempt to correlate the PCR results with the results of tests detecting antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. revealed that fewer than half (45.1 %) of the dogs with presence of DNA of the spirochete, developed an immune response. Therefore the transfer of B. burgdorferi s.l. form, the primary lesion to the target tissues, is possible in dogs which did not develop immune response or develop an insufficient response. Among 92 borreliosis-suspected dogs 54 (over 58 %) were diagnosed positively using laboratory methods. In most cases there was a correlation between clinical symptoms of borreliosis and presence of DNA B. burgdorferi, thus PCR may contribute to improving to a large extent diagnostic of canine Lyme disease.

PMID: 16457474
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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Tue 11 Dec 2007 9:38

Dogs face new danger from tick borne disease

12/19/2006 HILLSDALE-A week ago Saturday he was a healthy, happy hunting dog pursuing his genetically determined career with vigor, eating with gusto and taking the occasional recreational swim in the pond. This week, having been examined and treated by local vets and specialists in Westchester County and after having been revived with CPR three times at home, he died in his owner's arms. The dog, a pointer, was exhausted by multiple systemic failures that resulted from a tick borne disease-not Lyme disease-that has not, until now, been part of routine screening by many local vets.
Over a weekend of telling the story to friends, four other people had stories about the deaths of animals that sounded eerily familiar. For the last several years, Columbia County has had the highest per capita rate of Lyme disease infection among humans in the United States. But Lyme and other tick borne diseases also affect dogs; and with such a large population of ticks, it's not surprising that man's best friend is exposed to some of their owners' least-welcome problems.

The illnesses involved are ehrlichiosis and babesiosis. And while they are carried by ticks, they require different types of treatment.

Robin Moretti, a veterinary technician at Mountain View Animal Hospital in Greenport says that although commonly used diagnostic tests identify heartworm, Lyme disease and ehrlichiosis, there is a new strain of ehrlichiosis, called canine anaplasmosis. It requires a new test marketed by companies like IDEXX, in Westbrook, Maine. "Be sure to ask your vet for the diagnostic test that includes the new strain of ehrlichiosis," said Ms. Moretti.

She adds that because the most common signs of erlichiosis are hidden, all dogs should be screened.

Ehrlichiosis was first identified in dogs in Algeria in 1935. It can also affect cattle, sheep, goats, horses and people. In the 1970s, military dogs returned from Viet Nam with the tick borne disease (TBDs), earning it the nickname "tracker dog disease."

The agent that causes the disease is a rickettsial organism similar to a bacterium. It is transmitted through the bite of infected ticks. The brown dog tick is the most common carrier.

According to canine infectious disease experts, the greatest challenge in battling ehrlichosis and babesiosis is accurately diagnosing the signs, and this is one of the major reasons for the disease being underreported and misdiagnosed.

The diseases are nearly asymptomatic until quite advanced and often mimic other diseases

According to Ibulaimu Kakoma, DVM, Ph.D., an expert on tick borne diseases in animals, the two keys to success to thwarting these illnesses are early recognition and proper treatment.

Treatment with antibiotics can produce favorable results, but treatment with steroids or drugs not in the tetracycline class can "have tragic repercussions," he says.

TBDs go through three states: acute, sub-acute and chronic. The acute phase takes place one to four weeks after infection. The dog may have flu-like symptoms: fever, lethargy, loss of appetite, diarrhea and lameness. The dog may act as if it is painful to be touched and yelp when picked up. Laboratory tests at this stage could show decreased red blood cells and increased white blood cells. Liver, kidney or pancreatic enzymes may be elevated. Antibiotic therapy is recommended to thoroughly eliminate the organism.

If the animal is not treated during the acute stage, the illness moves into a sub-acute stage, characterized by a stabilization of body weight. Any abnormalities in lab tests are subtle. This phase can last months or years, with the parasite living within the host and not overwhelming the immune system. But if the animal is affected by factors like an increase in stress, surgery, excessive work, pregnancy or a combination of other diseases, the organism can assert itself and the condition of the dog becomes chronic. The parasite sometimes lives in a specific organ, making it difficult to treat. It can also impair the animal's immune system, causing death.

Humans do get tick borne diseases, but not from their dogs, cats, horses or any other domestic animals. They must be bitten by the tick. Ehrlichiosis is unusual in cats.

Dr. William Rasweiler, of Copake Veterinary Clinic, told The Independent Monday that his practice will be recommending the IDEXX 4Dx test.

"Don't panic, but we do have more concerns than before. It is no longer just Lyme, but a multitude of tick borne diseases. The movement of animals from different areas and the mild winter weather are the main things in terms of increased tick borne disease," he said.

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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Tue 11 Dec 2007 9:43

EPA Approves Fort Dodge Animal Health's ProMeris for Dogs
Providing Veterinarians and Pet Owners a New Topical Spot-On for Treatment of Fleas and Ticks on Dogs

OVERLAND PARK, Kan., (August 13, 2007) – Fort Dodge Animal Health, a division of Wyeth (NYSE: WYE), today announced the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has approved ProMeris™ for dogs, a low-volume, topical spot-on, to effectively control existing flea and tick infestations and prevent re-infestations on dogs and puppies eight weeks and older. ProMeris for cats, a topical spot-on for the effective control of existing flea infestations and to prevent re-infestation on cats and kittens eight weeks and older, was introduced in June 2007.

“The new ProMeris line gives veterinarians and pet owners a new weapon to fight today’s fleas and ticks, which can be vectors of serious disease and health conditions,” says Rami Cobb, BVSc (Hons), MACVSc, Senior Vice President of Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Fort Dodge Animal Health. “Metaflumizone has never before been used to control fleas and research shows they are readily susceptible. Amitraz, the second active ingredient in ProMeris for dogs, is a well-established tickicide and provides dogs with up to four weeks of tick control. Amitraz works by disrupting the tick’s normal nerve function, leading to reduced feeding and attachment, paralysis and death of the tick.”

ProMeris for dogs is the only product available to control fleas that contains the active ingredient metaflumizone, a new compound in the animal health industry. Its new mode of action attacks fleas’ nervous systems by blocking voltage dependent sodium channels, which results in paralysis and death of the flea.

While monthly application is generally recommended for optimal flea and tick control, research results show ProMeris for dogs effectively controls fleas and protects against re-infestation for up to six weeks, and may be used as part of a treatment strategy for dogs suffering from flea allergy dermatitis.

ProMeris for dogs also provides broad-spectrum control of ticks including the Blacklegged Tick (Ixodes scapularis), Brown Dog Tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus), American Dog Tick (Dermacentor variabilis) and Lone Star Tick (Amblyomma americanum), which can transmit serious diseases including Lyme disease, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and Ehrlichiosis.

ProMeris for dogs is waterproof and gentle enough to be used on dogs and puppies eight weeks and older. It is available in five sizes to accurately dose dogs and puppies of different body weights. Each size is available in three- or six-dose packages. ProMeris for dogs will be available for sale to veterinarians in the fall of 2007.

http://www.wyeth.com/news?nav=display&n ... 32823.html

ACVIM Small Animal Consensus Statement on LymeDisease in
Dogs:Diagnosis,Treatment,andPrevention

http://www.acvim.org/uploadedFiles/Cons ... 20Dogs.pdf
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