Tick diseases in Animals

General or non-medical topics with information and discussion related to Lyme disease and other tick-borne diseases.
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Yvonne
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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Fri 19 Mar 2010 18:33

Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2010 Mar 17. [Epub ahead of print]

One-Year Duration of Immunity Induced by Vaccination with a Canine Lyme Disease Bacterin.

Lafleur RL, Callister SM, Dant JC, Jobe DA, Lovrich SD, Warner TF, Wasmoen TL, Schell RF.

Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health Corporation, Elkhorn, Nebraska 68022; Gundersen Lutheran Medical Center, La Crosse, Wisconsin, and University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706.

Laboratory-reared beagles were vaccinated with placebo or a bacterin comprised of Borrelia burgdorferi S-1-10 and ospA(-)/ospB(-) B. burgdorferi 50772 and challenged after one year with B. burgdorferi-infected Ixodes scapularis ticks. In the placebo-recipients, spirochetes were recovered from 9 (60%) skin biopsies collected after 1 month, and the organisms persisted in the skin thereafter. Ten (67%) dogs also developed joint infection (3 dogs), lameness or synovitis (7 dogs), or B. burgdorferi-specific antibodies (8 dogs). In the vaccine-recipients, spirochetes were recovered from 6 (40%) skin biopsies collected after 1 month. However, subsequent biopsies were negative, and the dogs failed to develop joint infection (p = 0.224), lameness/synovitis (p = 0.006), or Lyme disease-specific antibody responses (p = 0.002). The bacterin provided a high level of protection for 1 year after immunization, and the addition of the OspC-producing B. burgdorferi 50772 provided enhanced protection.

PMID: 20237200
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Yvonne
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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Wed 24 Mar 2010 11:28

http://www.wset.com/news/stories/0310/718425.html

EPA Warns of Flea and Tick Treatment Dangers
Lynchburg, VA - The Environmental Protection Agency is taking a closer look at spot-on flea and tick treatments.

The agency found an increase in side effects ranging from skin irritation to seizures, even death, but veterinarians say you don't necessarily want to stop using them.
List of EPA-registered spot-on anti-flea and tick products :


http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/health/prodname-reg.pdf
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Yvonne
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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Fri 9 Apr 2010 15:04

http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/content/3/1/34


Imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in Germany
Abstract

Background
With the import of pets and pets taken abroad, arthropod-borne diseases have increased in frequency in German veterinary practices. This is reflected by 4,681 dogs that have been either travelled to or relocated from endemic areas to Germany. The case history of these dogs and the laboratory findings have been compared with samples collected from 331 dogs living in an endemic area in Portugal. The various pathogens and the seroprevalences were examined to determine the occurrence of, and thus infection risk, for vector-borne pathogens in popular travel destinations.


Results
4,681 dogs were examined serological for Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis. Buffy coats were detected for Hepatozoon canis and blood samples were examined for microfilariae via the Knott's test. The samples were sent in from animal welfare organizations or private persons via veterinary clinics. Upon individual requests, dogs were additionally examined serological for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii. Overall B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen detected by antibody titers (23.4%), followed by L. infantum (12.2%) and E. canis (10.1%). Microfilariae were detected in 7.7% and H. canis in 2.7% of the examined dogs. In 332/1862 dogs A. phagocytophilum, in 64/212 B. burgdorferi and in 20/58 R. conorii was detected. Of the 4,681 dogs, in total 4,226 were imported to Germany from endemic areas. Eighty seven dogs joined their owners for a vacation abroad. In comparison to the laboratory data from Germany, we examined 331 dogs from Portugal. The prevalence of antibodies/ pathogens we detected was: 62.8% to R. conorii, 58% to B. canis, 30.5% to A. phagocytophilum, 24.8% to E. canis, 21.1% to H. canis (via PCR), 9.1% to L. infantum and 5.3% to microfilariae


Conclusions
The examination of 4,681 dogs living in Germany showed pathogens like L. infantum that are non-endemic in Germany. Furthermore, the German data are similar in terms of multiple pathogen infection to the data recorded for dogs from Portugal. Based on these findings the importation of dogs from endemic predominantly Mediterranean regions to Germany as well as travelling with dogs to these regions carries a significant risk of acquiring an infection. Thus we would conclude that pet owners seek advice of the veterinarians prior to importing a dog from an endemic area or travel to such areas. In general, it might be advisable to have a European recording system for translocation of dogs.


Complete article :

http://www.parasitesandvectors.com/cont ... 5-3-34.pdf
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Yvonne
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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Mon 24 May 2010 9:12

Environ Microbiol. 2010 Jan;12(1):134-46. Epub 2009 Sep 16.

Isolation and characterization of a novel Borrelia group of tick-borne borreliae from imported reptiles and their associated ticks.

Takano A, Goka K, Une Y, Shimada Y, Fujita H, Shiino T, Watanabe H, Kawabata H.

United Graduate School of Agricultural Science and Veterinary Science, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan.

Abstract
The members of the genus Borrelia are transmitted by arthropods and known to be infectious to vertebrates. Here we found isolates and DNAs belonging to the Borrelia turcica and unknown Borrelia species from imported reptiles and their ectoparasites. The Borrelia strains were isolated from blood and multiple organs of exotic tortoises, and were experimentally infectious to captive-bred tortoises. These findings suggest that these tortoises may be a candidate as the reservoir host of the Borrelia species. In this study, the Borrelia strains were also isolated from and/or detected in hard-bodied ticks, Amblyomma ticks and Hyalomma ticks. In some of these ticks, immunofluorescence imaging analysis revealed that the Borrelia had also invaded into the tick salivary glands. Accordingly, these ticks were expected to be a potential vector of the Borrelia species. Sequencing analyses of both housekeeping genes (flaB gene, gyrB gene and 16S rDNA gene) and 23S rRNA gene-16S rRNA gene intergenic spacer region revealed that these Borrelia strains formed a monophyletic group that was independent from two other Borrelia groups, Lyme disease Borrelia and relapsing fever Borrelia. From these results, the novel group of Borrelia comprises the third major group of arthropod-transmitted borreliae identified to date.

PMID: 19758349
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Yvonne
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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Mon 24 May 2010 9:13

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_o ... 59b605218b

Emerging arthropod-borne diseases of companion animals in Europe
Abstract

Vector-borne diseases are caused by parasites, bacteria or viruses transmitted by the bite of hematophagous arthropods (mainly ticks and mosquitoes). The past few years have seen the emergence of new diseases, or re-emergence of existing ones, usually with changes in their epidemiology (i.e. geographical distribution, prevalence, and pathogenicity). The frequency of some vector-borne diseases of pets is increasing in Europe, i.e. canine babesiosis, granulocytic anaplasmosis, canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, thrombocytic anaplasmosis, and leishmaniosis. Except for the last, these diseases are transmitted by ticks. Both the distribution and abundance of the three main tick species, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Ixodes ricinus are changing. The conditions for such changes involve primarily human factors, such as travel with pets, changes in human habitats, social and leisure activities, but climate changes also have a direct impact on arthropod vectors (abundance, geographical distribution, and vectorial capacity). Besides the most known diseases, attention should be kept on tick-borne encephalitis, which seems to be increasing in western Europe, as well as flea-borne diseases like the flea-transmitted rickettsiosis. Here, after consideration of the main reasons for changes in tick vector ecology, an overview of each “emerging” vector-borne diseases of pets is presented.
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Yvonne
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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Sun 30 May 2010 10:37

http://www.ramiran.net/doc05/Folia/Skarda.pdf

BORRELIOSIS, THE PRESENT LYME DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA
ABSTRACT

Recent clinical experience and literature sources have
shown the co-incidence with multiple tick-borne pathogens
resulting in Lyme disease, and ehrlichiosis and/or babesiosis
Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of these diseases require
attention to the possibility of the presence of mixed infection.
Lyme borrellosls risk prevelance, is common with other
tick-borne disease and is closely relating to the ecology of an area
These phenomenon indicate a need to monitor case with lyme disease
for all currently known tick borne pathogens
Conclusion

At present, sevearal cases of Lyme borreliosis have a complicated course
The possibility of coincidence of multiple pathogens transmitted by ticks
such as Giardia spp. in seropositive cases of LB has shown the importance
in the development of GIT complication the early detection of these cases
requires selected diagnostic approaches
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Yvonne
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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Fri 25 Jun 2010 9:13

http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/pdf/10 ... .2009.0215

Borrelia burgdorferi Has Minimal Impact on the Lyme Disease Reservoir Host Peromyscus leucopus
Abstract

The epidemiology of vector-borne zoonotic diseases is determined by encounter rates between vectors and hosts. Alterations to the behavior of reservoir hosts caused by the infectious agent have the potential to dramatically alter disease transmission and human risk. We examined the effect of Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease, on one of its most important reservoir hosts, the white-footed mouse, Peromyscus leucopus. We mimic natural infections in mice using the vector (Black-legged ticks, Ixodes scapularis) and examine the immunological and behavioral responses of mouse hosts. Despite producing antibodies against B. burgdorferi, infected mice did not have elevated white blood cells compared with uninfected mice. In addition, infected and uninfected mice did not differ in their wheel-running activity. Our results suggest that infection with the spirochete B. burgdorferi has little impact on the field activity of white-footed mice. Lyme disease transmission appears to be uncomplicated by pathogen-altered behavior of this reservoir host.
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Yvonne
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Re: Tick diseases in Animals

Post by Yvonne » Wed 18 Aug 2010 20:35

Microb Ecol. 2010 Aug 14. [Epub ahead of print]

Associations Between Coinfection Prevalence of Borrelia lusitaniae, Anaplasma sp., and Rickettsia sp. in Hard Ticks Feeding on Reptile Hosts.

Václav R, Ficová M, Prokop P, Betáková T.

Institute of Zoology, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dubravska cesta 9, 84506, Bratislava, Slovakia, Radovan.Vaclav@savba.sk.

Abstract
An increasing number of studies reveal that ticks and their hosts are infected with multiple pathogens, suggesting that coinfection might be frequent for both vectors and wild reservoir hosts. Whereas the examination of associations between coinfecting pathogen agents in natural host-vector-pathogen systems is a prerequisite for a better understanding of disease maintenance and transmission, the associations between pathogens within vectors or hosts are seldom explicitly examined. We examined the prevalence of pathogen agents and the patterns of associations between them under natural conditions, using a previously unexamined host-vector-pathogen system-green lizards Lacerta viridis, hard ticks Ixodes ricinus, and Borrelia, Anaplasma, and Rickettsia pathogens. We found that immature ticks infesting a temperate lizard species in Central Europe were infected with multiple pathogens. Considering I. ricinus nymphs and larvae, the prevalence of Anaplasma, Borrelia, and Rickettsia was 13.1% and 8.7%, 12.8% and 1.3%, and 4.5% and 2.7%, respectively. The patterns of pathogen prevalence and observed coinfection rates suggest that the risk of tick infection with one pathogen is not independent of other pathogens. Our results indicate that Anaplasma can play a role in suppressing the transmission of Borrelia to tick vectors. Overall, however, positive effects of Borrelia on Anaplasma seem to prevail as judged by higher-than-expected Borrelia-Anaplasma coinfection rates.

PMID: 20711724
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